HARD LANDSCAPING
Hard landscaping is the use of physically hard materials (the non-living elements) to provide the fundamental framework for the finished outdoor space or garden; built into the design from the ground up. It is the permanent structures that provide shape and architectural features to different areas such as by the addition of walls, fences, pergolas, paving, patios, decking or water features.

Hard landscaping can also allow for creative ways of dealing with drainage, for example and extend from driveways into the realms of summer houses and garden offices too.